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What is Asthma Causes, definition, Symptoms and Treatment

Diseases Impairments

What is Asthma Causes, definition, Symptoms and Treatment

ASTHMA

Definition

it is a chronic inflammatory disorder of airways that cause wheezing,breathlessness,chest tightness and cough particularly in a night and in an early morning.

HALLMARKS:

The hallmark of asthma can b shown by a triangle ,one edge shows airway obstruction ,2nd shows smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperactivity and increased mucus secretion third shows chronic bronchial inflammATION WITH EOSINophils.

CELLS mainly involved

eosinophils, mast cells ,macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils ,epithelial cells.

TRIGGEed by

asthma is triggered by respiratory infections ,smoke,fumes,cold air,stress, and exercise.

PATHOGENESIS

type 2 helper T cells may be critical to the pathogenesis of asthma.cytokines produced by are;IL-4 stimulates IgE,IL-5 activates eosinophils,IL-3 stimulates mucus production.airway remodeling id main factor in which repeated bouts of inflammation leads to structural changes in bronchial wall occur.in these changes hypertrophy of bronchial smooth muscles, increased vascularity and deposition of subepithelial collagen.ADAMS-33 and mast cells are involved in pathogenesis.

HISTOLOGICAL FINDINGS

inflammation,narrowing of bronchi,increase mucus,smooth muscle hypertrophy.

MACROSCOscopic findings

occlusion of bronchi and bronchioles by mucous plugs.

churchman spirals Charcot-Leyden crystals are also present.

TYPES

atopic,non-atopic,drug-induced asthma,occupational asthma are 4 types.

brief description

ATOPIC:

it starts in childhood and a type of type 1 hypersensitivity reaction.this disease is triggered by dust, pollen, animal dander,infections, and foods.skin test (RASts)is positive.

NON_ATOPIC

a skin test is negative in this case.viruses, sulfur dioxide ,ozone,nitrogen dioxide are triggers.

Drug-induced asthma

patients who have the sensitivity of aspirin shows recurrent rhinitis,nasal polyps ,urticaria, and bronchospasm on aspirin intake.the underlying mechanism is unknown.but on theory shows that aspirin inhibits cyclooxygenase pathway that activates the production of leukotrienes that cause bronchial spasm.

OCCUPATIONAl ASTHMA

fumes, organic , chemical dust,  gases and other4 agents are triggering agents.

Clinical features:

severe dyspnea with wheezing .attacks lasts from 1 to several hours.severe paroxysm occurs even for days that does not respond to drugs,that is associated with hypercapnia,acidosis,severe hypoxia .

Treatment

this is just recommended treatment.before taking drugs,consult your physician first. the main goal of treatment is to decrease the severity of acute asthma attack.

main drugs which are used are;
beta-2 adrenergic agonists,leukotrienes,corticosteroids,ipratropium,theophylline,cromolyn,omalizumab

BRIEF DESCRIPTION:
[email protected] ADRENERGIC AGONISTS:

albuterol,levalbuterol,arformoterol,formoterol,indacaterol,salmeterol.

leukotrienes;

montelukast,zafirlukast,zileuton

corticosteroids;

beclomethasone,budesonide,ciclesonide,mometasone. corticosteroids are used for long-term treatment.leukotrienes are used in those patients in which poor control is present.it can also use as monotherapy.

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