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what is Hypertension definition Causes Symptoms and Treatments

what is Hypertension definition Causes Symptoms and Treatments

Diseases Impairments

what is Hypertension definition Causes Symptoms and Treatments

Hypertension

Definition

hypertension is defined as sustained systolic blood pressure of greater than 140mmHg or a sustained
diastolic blood pressure of greater than 90mmHg. it’s a common condition affecting about 30% people in the United States.

CAUSES:
1.about 90%patients have hypertension due to unknown causes.
2.and others have secondary to another disease process.
3.increased peripheral vascular arteriolar smooth muscle tone.
4.increase arteriolar resistance.
The 5.reduced capacitance of the venous system.

RISK FACTORS:

following are the risk factors which may lead to developing hypertension.
1.family history.
2.age
3.diabetes
4.obesity
5.disability
6.stressful lifestyle.
7.high dietary intake of sodium
8.smoking

IF NOT TREATED, MAY LEAD TO:
if it is not treated well, chronic hypertension may lead to
1.heart diseases.
2.stroke
3.chronic kidney disease
4.heart failure
5.death

TYPES;
hypertension have two types;
1.systemic hypertension.
2.pulmonary hypertension.

bRiEF dEScrIPtIon

1.systemic hypertension

systemic hypertension mostly affects the left side of the heart.it can b diagnosed by

  • 1.left ventricular hypertrophy,
  • 2.pathological evidence of hypertrophy.
  • 3.typically without ventricular dilation until late in the process.
  • 4.heart weight can exceed 500g(normal 320 to 360)
  • 5.left ventricular wall thickness can exceed 2cm(normal 1.2 to 1.4)
  • 6.even mild hypertension (above 140/90mmHg ,if sufficiently prolonged induces left ventricle hypertrophy.

2.PULMONARY HYPERTEnsion

pulmonary hypertension mostly involves right side of the heart.

  • 1.it can cause right ventricular hypertrophy and dilation.
  • 2.right heart failure.
  • 3.it may b due to disorders of lung parenchyma or pulmonary vasculature.

it can b acute or insidious. acute can b because of pulmonary embolism. insidiously is because of chronic lung and pulmonary vascular disease.

STAGES OF HYPERTENSION

1.normal:
systolic:<120
diastolic;<80

2.prehypertension stage:
systolic:120-139
diastolic:80-89

3.stage 1:
systolic:140-159
diastolic:90-99

4.stage 2:
systolic:>160
diastolic:>100

TREATMENT STRATAGEM

The main goal of treatment is to reduce the cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality.
education and hypertension lowering behaviours are necessary for treatment. mild hypertension can b reduced by monotherapy(just one drug) stage 2 patients should b started on two antihypertensives simultaneously.

INITIAL DRUGS:
1.thiazide diuretic
2.ACE inhibitors
3.ARBs
4.calcium channel blockers

DRUGS RECOMMENDED FOR TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION IN PATIENTS WITH CONCOMITANT DISEASES:
there are just recommended drugs.before taking any drug ,consult your physician first.

1.diabetes

The patients suffering from diabetes along with hypertension can b treated with
diuretics,AcE inhibitors,ca channel blockers, ARBs.
but should not treat with beta-blockers.

2.RECURRENT STROKE

Patients suffering from the stroke along with hypertension should b treated with
diuretics,ACE inhibitors.
but should not treat with beta-blockers ARBs,ca channel blockers.

3.angina and myocardial infarction

These patients should b treated with diuretics,beta-blockers,ACE inhibitors,ca channel blockers but should not treated with ARBs.

DRUGS:
1.beta-blockers:
acebutolol,atenolol,nebivolol,nadolol,penbutolol,timolol,esmolol,etc

2.diuretics;
eplerenone,furosemide,spironolactone,torsemide,metolazone

3.ACE inhibitors;
benazepril,captopril,enalapril,moexipril ramipril.

4.ABRs
candesartan,irbesartan,losartan,olmesartan

5.ca channel blockers;
amlodipine,felodipine,isradipine,nifedipine.

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