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what is Osteoporosis ?

what is Osteoporosis ?

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what is Osteoporosis ?

Osteoporosis

DEFINITION:

osteoporosis is an acquired condition characterized by reduced bone mass,that leads to increase bone loss,fragility an fracture. bone mass peaks during young age .heigher the peak ,greater will b the delay in onset of osteoporosis.

FACTORS INVOLVING IN OSTEOPOROSIS:

1.  PRIMARY CAUSES:
postmenopausal,senile.

2. secondary causes
hyperparathyroidism,hypogonadism,diabetes type 1,neoplasia,Addison disease

3. gastrointestinal
malnutrition,malabsorption,vitamin c deficiency.

4. drugs
chemotherapy,corticosteroids,alcohol

morphological patterns
hallmark of osteoporosis is loss of bone.osteoclast activity is increased but mineral content is normal.

PATHOGENESIS

main reason that leads to osteoporosis is imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activity.aging, nutrition ,genetic factors ,physical activity, menopause and hormonal changes are factors that lead to osteoporosis. the decline in estrogen level after menopause leads to cortical and trabecular bone loss, the increase in IL-1,IL-6 TNF level also leads to osteoporosis.increased osteoclast activity also causes that condition. increased expression of RANK-RANKL also present reduce physical activity,decrease the synthetic activity of osteoblasts,decreased the replicative activity of osteoprogenitor cells. decreased nutrition also a leading cause.vitamin D receptor polymorphisms also affect the peak bone mass.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION

osteoporosis is difficult to diagnose,until fragility or fracture of bone occurs.even radiographs show the osteoporosis when 30% bone loss already occurs. patient presents with pain,loss or limitation of motion or fracture.

TREATMENT STRANGES

ADEQUATE CALCIUM INTAKE, VITAMIN D supplementation,regular exercise,antiresorptive and osteoanabolic agents are used in treatment.bisphosphonates,calcitonin,estrogen,denosumab and parathyroid hormone also used in the osteoporotic patient.no treatment strategy for the osteoporotic patient after menopause.but the patients which are at risk should avoid glucocorticoids because they activate one resorption.

DRUGS

these are just recommended drugs,before taking ,consult your physician first.
alendronate,calcitonin,denosumab,ibandronate,risedronate,raloxifene,teriparatide,zoledronic acid.

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